Goat considered as poor man’s cow is very easy to rear and provides excellent nutritious milk and meat.
“Makes goat farming popular and profitable”
Goat farming simply can understand as rearing goat for the domestic purposes. Goats can be considered as animals with multiple uses. We rear goats to get meat, milk, leather and sometimes for wool. But the most common objective is for meat and milk.
Multiple uses (meat, milk, skin, hairs)
Higher reproductive efficiency
Suitability in small scale production
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Why you should choose goat farming?
In agricultural world the ruminant farming or animal husbandry is also a major and an economical process other than cultivation of crops. Of them goat production also lies at the top. Rearing of goats comes under the category of small ruminant farming
Do you know the type of meat that consumes by the majority of the world population is mutton? (We called the meat of the goat as Mutton).
Over 70% of the people consuming red meat demand mutton as their favorite meat.
This is very economical agricultural activity where you need a lesser investment. But the profit could be higher. Because mutton is considered as meat with more nutrition content. Therefore, the price of the mutton is considerably higher than other meat types So as milk. The milk of goat is excellent for baby feed.
Moreover, the manure of the goat is also with higher fertilizer content which you can use as a by-product for your crops.
Management of this livestock is comparatively easy. Management process is very flexible and is economical too. It is pretty sure that if you are going to start a ruminant farm better to give a thought to goat farming too as it promises a better income with lesser management.
Rearing goats is very economical process. Only a low investment is needed here when compared with the other ruminant farming.
The production per unit investment is higher here.
This is suitable for small scale farming also as its potentials to generate a higher income or profit.
The management of the goat is very easy. Their demands are quite an easy to fulfil. Feeding, housing and other management practices are very to follow regardless of their breed.
Due to their less body size very easy to rear.
They can adopt to their environment very easily and effectively too. The reproduction efficiency of goats is also higher. They multiply quickly than the cattle.
Uses of goat farming
- The most widely consumed red meat all over the world.
- It can be considered as leaner meat because saturated fat and cholesterol content of mutton is comparatively lower than beef and the lamb.
- Higher price. Therefore, possible to have a better income.
- But quality of mutton will occur depending on some factors like sex, breed, cut, age at slaughter etc. These factors effect on the pungency and the tenderness of the mutton.
- The best marketing age of the goat is from 6 to 10 months and the live weight at the slaughter should be 12 to 25 kg.
- Goat can consider as the foster mother for human as their milk is with excellent nutrition than any other livestock.
- Goat milk consists of lower fat percentage.
- Contains higher proportion of protein and lactulose.
- Rich in minerals as well.
- This is also another product that you can have from the goats.
- Their hair and wool are with higher tensile strength.
- Can use to make so many good especially ropes.
Here are some terms that we are using when studying about the goat farming.
- Kids – Young goats
- Kidding – Parturition/giving birth to young ones
- Does – Adult female goat
- Buck – Adult male goat
- Mutton – Meat
- Billy goats – Male
- Dairy goats – Female
Breeds of Goats
There are ample amount of Goat breeds you can find for raring based on your location. Here I am going discuss about some of the goat breeds.
- Origin- North India
- Use for both the purposes: milk and meat
- They are normally white in color. With tan or black marks at the neck and the ears.
- You can see a beard in both sexes.
- They have very large and long legs.
- Head can distinguish with a Roman nose, long pendulous ears, short flat horns
- Body weight of a mature male is about 65 – 90 kg and female is about 35 – 65 kg
- This breed has a lactation period of about 8 – 9 months,
- Milk yield: 1 – 1.5 L/day
- Kidding: once a year or Annual, very low twining rate compared with other breeds.
- Originated in South Africa
- White body with brown or black head and neck.
- Head is with Pronounced Roman nose, broad and lopped ears and prominent horns.
- Average mature body weight of a male is about 75-100 kg and a female are about 60-75 kg
- Gives a milk yield of about 1.3-1.8 L/day.
- They are best in meat production and are easy to manage too.
- Origin of Saanen is Switzerland
- They are Pure or creamy white in coat color.
- Head is small with a flat nose
- Average mature body weight: male = 75-85 kg, female = 50-75kg
- Lactation period: 8-10 months
- Milk yield: 2 L/day
- Best as dairy goat giving a higher milk yield.
- Origin of the Toggenburge is Switzerland
- Coat color is Chocolate brown with white markings on the face, ears, legs and tail
- Head is with a flat nose and small and erect ears
- Average mature body weight: male = 75-90 kg, female = 60-75 kg n
- Lactation period: 8 months
- Milk yield: 1.5 L/day
- Kidding: Annual
Management practices of Goats
There are several systems of goat management. They are
- Extensive management
- Intensive management
- Semi-intensive management
- Integration with crops
We have to provide all the basic requirements for the goats including houses, food and vaccines if you need to have better yield from your goats. Must provide them with the better management practices.
Houses should be elevated ground floors with slatted floor. This helps to provide a disease-free environment and also increases the productivity too.
Feeding is very easy with roughages and concentrates. They prefer browsing feeds.
At the age of 5-8 months, they become sexually matured. But this depends on the breed, system of management, level of nutrition and season of birth.
Diseases of the Goats
As other ruminants the goats also get certain diseases. So, close observation of the goats is very important when you rear the goats. The vaccination process as well as cleanliness should maintain in the best level to make them free from the diseases.
Reproductive diseases of does
- Retained placenta
- Milk fever
- Genetic infertility